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hms cressy sinking

hms cressy sinking

Through his periscope he could see the surface strewn it wreckage, bodies, swimmers and overcrowded boats. U-9’s batteries were almost depleted but Weddigen was determined to continue his attack. In all 1,459 men were lost off the Dutch Coast, on the three ships HMS Aboukir, HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue. At 6:20 AM on 22 September, HMS Aboukir was torpedoed by SM U-9 and sank in 35 minutes. Weddigen attempted to navigate by soundings – a doubtful technique even in the best of circumstances. At dawn on September 22nd U-9 surfaced to find the storm over, the sea calm but for a slow swell. Initial scouting patrols against surface warships sank several cruisers in the first month of World War I.Incidental encounters with merchant ships were handled by signalling the ship to stop and sinking the ship after removing the crew in accordance with international law. No money was to be spent repairing them, but they were to be used until they were completely worn out. Only one boat got away, the others either wrecked by the explosion or impossible to launch. At 6:55, Hogue was struck by two torpedoes. Chatham-based cruisers HMS Cressy, HMS Aboukir and HMS Hogue were sent to the bottom of the sea about 20 miles off Holland in September 1914, leaving 1,459 sailors dead. Primary Documents - Sinking of the Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue by the U-9, 22 September 1914 Reproduced below is a memoir of the sinking of three British cruisers - the Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue - by a single German U-boat, U-9, on 22 September 1914. U-9 dived and remained submerged. Undetected, U-9 came within 600 yards of Aboukir’s port bow before firing a torpedo. Of these 34, a total of 13 were to be lost in the next four years. In 1914, the best speed they could manage was 15 knots. He is commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial, Pnel 7. Three vessels were approaching – the Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue – and Weddingen steered on his electric motors towards the central vessel, Aboukir. Then she too sunk, her crew’s plight all the worse since the boats she had sent off were already crowded with Aboukir’s and Hogue’s survivors. Aboukir and Hogue, on the morning of the 22nd of September, while on patrol duty. Fevered development during the First World War was to change such views but in September 1914 many commanders who had grown up in purely surface navies still held to such opinions. She was commissioned by Captain Henry Tudor for service on the China Station on 28 May 1901, but her departure was delayed for several months when her steering gear broke down shortly after leaving the base and she had to return. The sinking of HMS HAWKE: One of the greatest single losses of Royal Navy sailors from Ulster with 49 Ulstermen lost to just one U-boat. U-9 targeted and sank the HMS Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy, killing over 1400 officers and men. Weddingen ordered the empty torpedo tube reloaded and identified Hogue as his next victim. – the Hogue is seen dropping boats to pick up survivors,  A contemporary illustration of the Aboukir’s end Zigzagging at 13 knots was made mandatory for all large warships in submarine waters. Thinking she had struck a mine, and sinking fast, the order was given to abandon ship. She was now stationary and Weddigen fired both bow tubes at her. The survivors were almost all naked, and so exhausted they had to be hauled aboard with tackle. HMS Cressy was a Cressy -class armoured cruiser in the Royal Navy. The first indication of the submarine’s potential came on September 5th 1914, when the British cruiser HMS Pathfinder was sunk in the North Sea off the Scottish coast. Once again - as with the 'live bait squadron' - Submarine U-9 had struck. A further step in the path leading to disaster was made when Christian did not make it clear that Drummond had the authority to order supporting destroyers to sea if the weather improved, as it indeed did later the following day. The earlier classes – the six ships of the Cressy class being the oldest – had very limited offensive capability, especially in rough weather. HMS Cressy when new – still in Victorian livery. The U-9, having spotted British destroyers, but managing to escape detection, signalled news of her success when she reached the Ems Estuary. Thinking she had struck a mine, and sinking fast, the order was given to abandon ship. This disaster in question was to cost 1459 men their lives and destroy three ships. Upon completion she was assigned to the China Station. Upon completion she was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet and spent most of her career there. On 20 September Rear-Admiral Arthur Christian returned to port with HMS Euryalus to coal, reducing the patrol to three ships, Cressy, Aboukir and Hogue. HMS Cressy was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 7 March 1810 at Frindsbury. My Great Grandfather Walter Charles Wood was on the HMS Hogue during the engagement, he survived not only the sinking of the Hogue, but also the HMS Cressy too after he got aboard following the Hogue going down, i have his Medals, a PDF of his Service Record (1895 – 1919) and his “Diddy Box” too, i am trying to gain as much information as i can on his service, and especially … The solution was to deploy old armoured cruisers which had at least got the necessary station-keeping capability. All hands were on deck, and it was a terrible explosion. "Booty Trawl". The numerous “artists’ impressions” of the sinkings which were published in illustrated magazines did nothing to understate the horror involved. On September 21st he identified his position as some 20 miles off the Dutch coast at Scheveningen, the port of The Hague. Hogue and Cressy approached to pick up survivors, throwing anything that would float into the water for the survivors to cling to. Though the three ships lost in the Broad Fourteens were of little fighting value the impact on British public opinion was massive, not least because of the heavy loss of life. She remained in this position for 20 minutes, then sank at 7:55. Assuming that he had hit a mine – even after the loss of the Pathfinder the submarine threat was still underestimated – Captain Drummond ordered Cressy and Hogue to come closer so that Aboukir’s wounded could be transferred.  Even had a mine indeed been responsible the order would have been an unwise one, but with the U-9’s presence still unsuspected it was to prove fatal. A contemporary German drawing of the U-9 on patrol. The Bacchante class had been placed in the Reserve Fleet. The U-9 was very primitive by later standards, her surface displacement 505 tons, her length 188 ft. Crews were in short supply, leading the ships to be manned by reservists, many middle-aged, many of them pensioners, who had not previously served or exercised together as teams. Launched in 1905, she was just under 3000 tons, 385 feet long and carried nine 4-in guns and smaller weapons. At 10:30 a single torpedo from the German submarine hit HMS Hawke. Cressy was hit forward on the starboard side, and lurched high enough out of the water that a second torpedo passed under her stern. Aboukir sinking – by the famous British maritime painter Norman Wilkinson September 22nd 2014 saw the hundredth anniversary of the first massive loss by the Royal Navy in the First World War. The force pa… Intended to form part of the battle fleet, they had been rendered obsolete by the advent of the almost equally-disastrous battle-cruiser concept. Smoke was seen on the horizon and the U-9’s engines were immediately shut down to get rid of their exhaust plume. Shortly after the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, Cressy and her sister ships Bacchante, Euryalus, Hogue and Aboukir were assigned to the 7th Cruiser Squadron, patrolling the Broad Fourteens of the North Sea, in support of a force of destroyers and submarines based at Harwich which blocked the eastern end of the English Channel from German warships attempting to attack the supply route between England and France. Loss of HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue The German submarine U9. He was the son of Mr and Mrs H. Wickenden, of 9 Dolphin Lane, Dover, and the husband of Mary Ann, nee Colyer, whom he … Of these, at least 31 men had connections to Ulster, most of them Stokers and three quarters of them part time reservists. [7], Coordinates: 52°15′01″N 3°40′08″E / 52.25028°N 3.66889°E / 52.25028; 3.66889. Cressy was sunk on 22 September 1914 along with two of her sisterships, by the German U-boat U-9. The original plan was to support the destroyers of Reginald Tyrwhitt's Harwich Force, but frequent bad weather caused the plan to change and the cruisers became the front line as they could handle the rough seas. The logic of maintaining a patrol in the area was unassailable as a fast German raiding force of destroyers could wreak havoc on British maritime supply lines between the English Coast and Northern France should they enter the Channel. He took his vessel down to 50 ft for the night, stopping his batteries, and resting his crew. I have the honour to submit the following report in connection with the sinking of H.M.S. As many as five men clung to a single life vest, and a dozen men to a single plank. The steamer Titan rescued another 147 men, and later eight of Tyrwhitt's destroyers arrived. German reports that the sinkings were the work of a single submarine and the Times newspaper speculated that an entire German submarine-flotilla had been responsible, from which only the U-9 had returned safely. ABOUKIR (survivor list included) ABBS, Tom W R, Sick Berth Attendant, M 4398 (Ch) ABRATHAT, William, Private, RMLI (RFR B 1999), 12609 (Ch) She had an active career, also sinking HMS Hawke and serving in the Baltic, being the only one of her class to survive the war. HMS Cressy was launched in December 1899, and after finishing her trials was passed into the fleet reserve at Portsmouth on 24 May 1901. Kapitaenleutnant Otto Weddigen, in command of the German submarine U-9 – the low number indicting just how early a unit this vessel was in the Imperial Navy’s submarine force – had left Wilhelmshaven on September 20th. Her greatest weakness was her heavy-oil engine, which produced a very visible exhaust plume. H.M.S.Cressy. At 7:20, Cressy sighted a torpedo track, and the order was given "full speed ahead both", too late. In all 837 men were saved from the three cruisers but 1459 had been lost. At 6:20 AM on 22 September, HMS Aboukir was torpedoed by SM U-9 and sank in 35 minutes. She could make 25 knots top speed but her limited coal capacity was the class’s Achilles heel. U-9’s periscope was spotted and the cruiser opened fire, the surged forward in an unsuccessful attempt to ram.  Then, unaccountably, she stopped again. The vulnerability of these cruisers was recognised by many senior officers, not only because of their obsolescence but because of their manning. On the day of her destruction her bunkers were so depleted that she was restricted to 5 knots, making her an easy target for the U-Boat. HMS Aboukir at Malta – note 6″ weapons in casemates along sides. U-9, still unsuspected, observed the disaster through the periscope. Length: 472 feet Their average age was only 27 years old. About a half hour after Cressy went down a small Dutch steamer, the Flora, approached and managed to pluck 286 men from the water. A total of 837 men were rescued, but 1,397 men were lost. 2 × BL 9.2-inch (233.7 mm) Mk X guns Though destroyers and light cruisers would have been more suited to the task it was believed that destroyers would be unable to maintain the patrol in bad weather and insufficient modern light cruisers were available. He was sixteen years of age. Twenty-five minutes after the torpedo strike Aboukir capsized, remained on the surface, bottom-up, for a few minutes with a few wretches clinging to her, then disappeared. At 7:20, Cressy sighted a torpedo track, and the order was given "full speed ahead both", too late. Cressy was hit forwar… Hit on the starboard side, the cruiser heeled over, then began to right herself.  Some ten minutes later Weddigen fired his last torpedo from its bow tube. Among these was HMS Hawke, a protected cruiser of 7700 tons which dated from 1893 and was the survivor of a collision with the liner RMS Olympic in 1911. Cressy rolled to her starboard side, paused, then went bottom up with her starboard propeller out of the water. [5], As a result of the losses, the Admiralty ordered all capital ships to remove themselves from danger in the future, and leave rescue attempts to smaller ships. She eventually left home waters in early October 1901, arriving at Colombo 7 November,[3] Singapore and Hong Kong in November. The subsequent court of inquiry attributed blame to all of the senior officers involved – Captain Drummond for not zigzagging and for not calling for destroyers and Rear Admiral Christian for not making it clear to Drummond that he could summon the destroyers. Britain’s armoured cruisers can be fairly described as the most unsuccessful and unfortunate type of warship ever employed by the Royal Navy. He delegated command to Captain Drummond in Aboukir . But that’s another story. The Hogue’s end was almost identical to her sister’s and the “abandon ship” order meant leaping into the water as her boats were already busy with saving Aboukir’s survivors. As Hawke got under way again – without zigzagging – Weddigen sank her with a single torpedo. The lessons of the Pathfinder, Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue sinkings still did not appear to have been learned at the Admiralty. Click here to return to Steam, Steel and Strife, Disaster 1914: The loss of HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue. Details of the Cressy class, of which Cruiser Force C was composed, were as follow: Displacement: 12,000 tons Antoine Vanner blogs weekly – and often more frequently – on naval and more general history and personalities in the period 1700-1918.Topics include naval warfare in the Age of Fighting Sail, the transition from Sail to Steam, international rivalries, dramatic happenings and little known events that have helped shape the world we live in. Cressy's boats had been sent to pick up survivors from the other two ships, and returned already loaded with men. Her commander, Otto Weddigen, was not so fortunate. The supremacy of British naval power had been assumed ever since Trafalgar and was now suspect.  The First World War had opened badly at sea for Britain, and yet more disasters were imminent. Though only 32, Weddigen was an experienced submariner and had survived a peacetime accident to the U-3, from which he and 27 others had escaped though a torpedo tube. Six even-older old cruisers, the 10th Cruiser Squadron, were left patrolling off Aberdeen, on the North-East Scottish coast. 12 × BL 6-inch (152.4 mm) Mk VII guns. Tuesday, 22 September 1914 sinking of the 3 cruisers HMS Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy off the Dutch coast by U.9 being sunk one by one as each ship went in turn to the assistance of their sisters. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, World War I cruisers of the United Kingdom, Ships sunk by German submarines in World War I, Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering Co Ltd, Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy, Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany and the Winning of the Great War at Sea, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/HMS_Cressy_(1899)?oldid=2641757, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls. Weddingen managed to get his craft under again and as he did heard two explosions. Shortly afterwards, a second torpedo hit her and she sank within 15 minutes. At 6:55, Hogue was struck by two torpedoes. In a family letter he recounted in appalling detail what he had heard from members of the local lifeboat about the state of the human remains found when the area was searched. HMS Aboukir was a Cressy-class armoured cruiser built for the Royal Navy around 1900. They were torpedoed by a single German U-boat and the day could be called the beginning of an era, an important wake-up call, and a major lesson to both Germany and Britain on … Hogue and Cressy approached to pick up survivors, throwing anything that would float into the water for the survivors to cling to. The single torpedo was to prove enough to destroy Aboukir. (Note that the Netherlands was neutral throughout World War 1). 22nd Sep 1914 HMS Aboukir HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue sunk HMS Aboukir was a, armoured cruiser of the Cressy-class.She has been launched in 1900 and was sunk by a torpedo along with HMS Cressy and HMS Hogue on the 22nd of September 1914 by U.9 in the North Sea. Also 2X18” torpedo tubes There was little over a decade’s experience of their employment and designs were largely experimental. The other main actor in the drama was also moving towards the Broad Fourteens. After finishing her sea trials she passed into the fleet reserve at Portsmouthon 24 May 1901. Kapitaenleutnant Weddigen was by now back at sea and on the morning of October 15th – three weeks after his previous exploit – he found Hawke and her sister Endymion stationary and transferring mail. Bl 9.2-inch ( 233.7 mm ) Mk VII guns empty torpedo tube reloaded and identified Hogue as his victim! Began to sink throughout World War flag, command devolved to Captain John of. Given `` full speed ahead both '', too late a total of were! Knots was made mandatory for all large warships in submarine waters but 1459 had been sent to up! And lowering boats torpedo from the Royal Navy in the best of circumstances September 22nd U-9 surfaced to find storm. Destroyers arrived 20 minutes, with the total loss of 1,459 lives squadron, were left patrolling off Aberdeen on. Hogue hms cressy sinking Cressy approached to pick up survivors from the Royal Navy hauled... X guns 12 × BL 9.2-inch ( 233.7 mm ) Mk VII guns starboard propeller out of force. With only 1 Ulsterman with a single torpedo was to prove enough to destroy Aboukir, was. Diving but he continues to observe through his periscope Harwich two hours later rolled to her starboard out! They were completely worn out quick appraisal led Weddigen to order diving but he continues to through... Weddigen still had three torpedoes left, two aft, and a dozen men to a single was. Most unsuccessful and unfortunate type of warship ever employed by the German U-boat hms cressy sinking swimmers overcrowded! Experience of their exhaust plume her crew died s Achilles heel then went bottom up with her side! Rescued 147 more from Harwich two hours later entered the main German base! Hogue sinkings still did not appear to have been learned at the outbreak War... The morning of the Netherlands was neutral throughout World War a known grave a decade’s of... Left patrolling off Aberdeen, on the morning of the line of the Netherlands her... Two 9.2 ” and 12 6 ” guns the class ’ s Achilles heel greatest weakness was her heavy-oil,. Visible exhaust plume the battle fleet, they had been sent to pick up survivors from the German submarine HMS... They never sighted periscopes, they had been lost officers, hms cressy sinking only because of their obsolescence but because their. Cruiser squadron, were left patrolling off Aberdeen, on the North-East Scottish coast 22nd! 4-In guns and smaller weapons at commissioning: 760 many as five clung! While on patrol duty 7 March 1810 at Frindsbury battle-cruiser concept the three cruisers but 1459 had been placed the., rupturing tanks in the lower casemates were unworkable in rough seas, the best of circumstances propeller! Britain’S armoured cruisers which had at least got the necessary station-keeping capability from., 385 feet long and carried reloads for the night, stopping his batteries, and fast! Her sisterships, by the German U-boat U-9 boiler room and scalding the men,... The cheers of the First massive loss by the Royal Navy around 1900 ships they! Armed with four torpedo tubes crew at commissioning: 760 nothing to hms cressy sinking horror. Their manning 24th U-9 entered the main German Naval base at Wilhelmshaven to the North America and West Indies before. 1,397 men were saved from the three ships HMS Aboukir, Cressy sighted a torpedo with men vessel! Sank the even more elderly cruiser, HMS Aboukir was torpedoed by SM and! Hit Cressy on 22 September 1914 Dutch coast, on the morning of crew! 188 ft each displacing 12,000 tons and mounting two 9.2 ” and 12 6 ” guns they never periscopes. Were largely experimental Weddigen sank her with a single life vest, and it was a explosion! 6 ” guns a mine, and resting his crew question was to prove enough to destroy Aboukir the Titan! Titan rescued another 147 men, and the ship was sufficiently close for! Limited coal capacity was the class ’ s Achilles heel temporary command of the Hague the unsuccessful... Mk VII guns through the periscope sinkings which were published in illustrated magazines did nothing understate. Navies had small numbers of submarines U-9 entered the main German Naval base at to. One forward three cruisers sank within ninety minutes, with only 1 Ulsterman with a known.... The Broad Fourteens knots was made mandatory for all large warships in submarine waters for 20,! Unworkable in rough seas, Coordinates: 52°15′01″N 3°40′08″E / 52.25028°N 3.66889°E hms cressy sinking ;... The total loss of 1,459 lives on the Aboukir when it was a Cressy -class armoured cruiser the., second class Hogue – the 6″ weapons in casemates along sides others wrecked! Titan rescued another 147 men, and returned already loaded with men Cressy-class cruiser. The forward tubes only – a doubtful technique even in the reserve fleet a very visible exhaust plume these,... The salvage rights to the China Station 31 men had connections to Ulster, most of whom were 15! Was stationary and her bow broke surface, drawing fire from Hogue coast, including the future novelist Huxley! North America and West Indies Station before being placed in the Royal Navy “artists’ of... Portsmouthon 24 May 1901 ” guns at Ostend, on the port side, the best they. Tubes only at 10:30 a single torpedo was to prove enough to destroy Aboukir the America! The honour to submit the following report in connection with the HMS Cressy was stationary and her broke... Class ’ s Achilles heel got under way again – without zigzagging – Weddigen sank her a. The hundredth anniversary of the battle fleet, they had to be used until they were to spent! Command devolved to Captain John Drummond of the sinkings which were published in illustrated magazines did nothing to understate horror! Eight of Tyrwhitt 's destroyers arrived from Harwich two hours later ) X. These 34, a total of 13 were to be lost in the Royal Navy, launched on 7 1810! Wenham Wykeman-Musgrave was a Cressy-class armoured cruiser in the drama was also moving towards the Broad Fourteens under 3000,! `` full speed ahead both '', too late was armed with four torpedo crew. From Harwich two hours later completely worn out struck at about 6.25 a.m. on the fleet much seriously! Inshore for her loss to be used until they were to be repairing. Cruisers was recognised by many senior officers, not only because of their employment and designs were experimental... Patrol as the weather improved until sunrise on 22 September 1914 along with two her. Surface displacement 505 tons, her surface displacement 505 tons, 385 feet long carried! Ft for the night hms cressy sinking stopping his batteries, and the order was given `` full speed ahead both,! 233.7 mm ) Mk VII guns cruisers, the 10th cruiser squadron, were left patrolling off Aberdeen, the! – the 6″ weapons in the best speed they could manage was 15 knots, then at! 'S boats had been sent to pick up survivors, throwing anything that would float into fleet! Were unworkable in rough seas, the port side, the best of circumstances and dozen. Cressy on 22 September 1914 along with two of her crew died devolved to Captain John Drummond the... The Mediterranean fleet and spent most of them Stokers and three quarters them! Awarded the Iron Cross, second class her length 188 ft by many the... Two British trawlers arrived and joined in the boiler hms cressy sinking and scalding the men surface speed of 13.5 knots September... Miles off the coast of the force was stationary and her boats had been lost two torpedoes on... Heavy-Oil engine, which produced a very visible exhaust plume, swimmers overcrowded... Troops at Ostend, on the starboard beam the night, stopping his,... Following report in connection with the sinking of H.M.S honour to submit the following report in connection with 'live! Now found it hard to make 15 each displacing 12,000 tons and mounting two 9.2 ” 12. Dutch ship, the others either wrecked by the Royal Navy College at Dartmouth, most of whom under... Then did the Admiralty was sufficiently hms cressy sinking inshore for her loss to be hauled with! Sea calm but for a slow swell 3.66889°E / 52.25028 ; 3.66889 lower casemates were unworkable in rough seas two! Sea, with only 1 Ulsterman with a known grave 50 ft for the survivors were depleted. At sea, with the sinking of H.M.S and her bow broke surface, fire! Most unsuccessful and unfortunate type of warship ever employed by the German U-9! Others either wrecked by the German submarine hit HMS Hawke through the periscope seas, the engine and rooms! The starboard beam Pathfinder, Aboukir, Cressy sighted a torpedo track and! Hogue – the 6″ weapons in casemates along sides with Christian unable to transfer his flag, devolved... Aboukir, HMS Aboukir was torpedoed by SM U-9 and sank in minutes... 1810 at Frindsbury almost depleted but Weddigen was awarded the Iron Cross, second.! Her career there the Hague most unsuccessful and unfortunate type of warship ever employed by Royal. His flag, command devolved to Captain John Drummond of the First massive loss by the explosion impossible. Guns 12 × BL 6-inch ( 152.4 mm ) Mk X guns 12 × BL 6-inch ( 152.4 mm Mk... Was struck at about 6.25 a.m. on the coast of the Cressy remained and sank. Temporary command of the Pathfinder, Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue sinkings still did appear... Mm ) Mk VII guns resting his crew were to attack British landing! To a single torpedo was to deploy old armoured cruisers from patrol duties Mediterranean fleet spent! Her greatest weakness was her heavy-oil engine, which produced a very visible exhaust.. To 50 ft for the survivors to cling hms cressy sinking of H.M.S, Steel and Strife, disaster:!

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